How to get elected
如何獲選
What do you know?

See how much of this you know before you start and then come back to it when you’ve finished the unit to check that you know all the answers.
在開始前,看看這些字詞你是否了解,讀完這個單元後再回來對照,就能知道答案
Do you know what the following words means?
 Sound bite經典句
 Slogan 口號
 Manifesto宣言
 Press release新聞稿
 Canvassing遊說

What will you know?
By the end of this unit you will know
本單元結束後你會知道

 Techniques that politicians use to get their message across in election campaigns.

政治家在選戰中傳達訊息使用的技巧

Background
The pictures on these two pages show you different ways used by people who want to be elected to get people to listen to their ideas.
這兩頁的圖片顯示想獲選的人用不同方法使群眾傾聽他們的政見

Quite often they will make up short catch-phrase that will stick in people’s minds and get a message across quickly. In the 1950s the Conservative prime minister Harold Macmillan famously used the phrase” You’ve never had it so good” to try to persuade voters that they were well off under his government. Television and radio editors often include such short extracts in their broadcasts – when they are called sound bites. Politicians are aware of this and often write short catchy phrases in the hope that they will be used as sound bites. Politicians are aware of this and often write short catchy phrases in the hope that they will be used as sound bites.

他們常創造出一些短的標語能抓住人們的心理並且快速傳達訊息
在1950年保守黨的首相Harold Macmillan最有名的短句:「絕無僅有」來說服選民在他帶領的的政府下會生活的富足
電視和廣播製作者常放入這樣的經典句他們的節目中
從政者知道他們會這麼做,並努力寫出這樣經典的佳句希望媒體可以採用他的口號變成經典句

Posters and press advertisements for political parties often use slogans to get their message across. These slogans are particularly effective and memorable when they use puns (plays on words).
Look at the picture of the Conservative poster with the slogan ‘Four years of Labour and he still hasn’t delivered’. The poster uses an image of Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair which has been manipulated to look as if he is pregnant. The slogan makes a pun on both the word ‘Labour’ (‘giving birth’ and the political party) and the word ‘delivered’ (meaning delivered on his promises and delivered in terms of giving birth).

政黨常使用宣傳口號放在海報與廣告上來傳達訊息
當這些口號具有雙關意味時(玩弄字句時)特別有效且難忘
在下頁的圖片中可以看到保守黨的海報標語是:準備了四年他依然沒有產出他的政策
這張海報把工黨首相Tony Blair製作成懷孕的樣子
這個標語把"懷孕生產"與"工黨"雙關,也把產出孩子與產出政策雙關

Prime Minister Harold Macmillan gives a television interview in 1958.

首相Harold Macmillan 在1958年的電視訪問
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A 2001 Conservative pre-election poster.
2001年保守黨的選前海報

1
How do politicians communicate with voters?
An activity to investigate some of the different methods that politicians use to get their message across to voters.

從政者如何與選民溝通?
做一做這些調查活動,看看從政者如何使用不同方法將他們的訊息傳達給選民

What to do
1
List the different methods that candidates use to try to get their message across to the public – think of as many as you can. There are clues in the illustrations and photographs in this unit.

列出候選人用哪些方法來使大眾了解他的競選主張,列越多越好,可以使用本單元的圖片與照片


2
Think of some issues that might get people interested during an election and write three slogans that would sum up the issue and get people’s attention. Try to make your slogans short, punchy and memorable – remember they might be used as television sound bites. (Your teacher will suggest some typical issues if you can’t think of any yourself.)

想一些議題可能使人們在選舉中被吸引住,寫三個口號能夠結合這些議題並吸引注意
盡量使口號簡短、有力、難忘,能夠在電視廣告上廣為流傳
如果不知道有哪些廣為流傳的口號可以請教老師

3
Which of the methods of communicating with voters that you have just written about do you think would be the most effective? Give reasons for your answer.

對於剛剛寫下吸引大眾的方法,哪個你覺得最有效果,為甚麼?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
Holding a mock election campaign
An activity to explore the techniques candidates use to grab voters’ attention and get their message across.

 Divide into groups of four people.
 Select one person to be your candidate (they will make your speech, so choose the person who can sound the most convincing).
 Decide on a name for your party.
 Produce a party manifesto.
 Make copies of your manifesto and give one to each of the other parties.
 Write a press release for a newspaper.
 Produce a party poster.
 Write a speech for you candidate.

How will your work be assessed?
You will be assessed not only on the quality of the work that your group produces but also on the part you play in the group activities.
Your teacher will show you a sheet called ‘Citizenship Strand 3 Self-Assessment’. You will be asked to fill this out at the end of the activity so look at it carefully so that you know what is expected of you.
Here are some guidelines about what your documents need to contain.

Produce a party manifesto
A manifesto is a short booklet that outlines what your party stands for and what it will do.
It needs to contain your main aims as a party so you have to say what you will do about major issues such as the National Health Service(NHS), education, transport, social service, crime, taxes and other issues.
It should have some eye-catching images and/or phrases that sum up your party – you need people to remember what you stand for.

Write a press release for a newspaper
Your press release is like a shortened version of your manifesto. It is something that newspaper can use to turn into a longer article, but it has to be short and to the point. Don’t forget to say why you would be better than other parties and suggest how the other parties would be worse than you.

Produce a party poster
Your poster should be eye-catching and have a memorable image a strong pint about your party (or about your opposition). It shouldn’t have too many words on it because people won’t bother to read lots of writing on a poster.

Write a speech for your candidate
This is the hardest thing to write. The speech has to get your audience’s interest by focusing on things that matter to them. People are more likely to sit up and listen if your speech has a strong, imaginative beginning. Try using techniques such as rhetorical questions (questions asked to make a point, rather than actually needing an answer) or using groups of three words (such as ‘a public transport system that is cheap, clean and reliable’). You need to get across the main ideas of your party but in a way that makes people think ‘Yes, I like what they’re saying, I’ll vote for them.’

Assessment
Fill out the sheet called ‘Citizenship Strand 3 Self-Assessment’.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
The doorstep challenge
An activity to explore political debate in the context of canvassing door-to-door.

What to do
In pairs, write a short scene between a parliamentary candidate and a member of the public that takes place on a doorstep. The candidate wants to find out if the person intends to vote for them, and if not, to persuade them to do so. This is known as canvassing.

CAN WE COUNT ON YOUR VOTE?

You could start it like this.

Candidate: Good morning. My name is ….. and I am the parliamentary candidate for the ….. Party. I wondered if our party could count on your vote or if there are any questions you would like to discuss about our policies.
Householder: Well, I don’t know, that depends on what your policies are. What are the main things you stand for?

The candidate should refer to the manifesto and speech that their group wrote and try to persuade the person in the house to vote for them. Imagine the kind of questions and arguments that the householder might put.
Carry on the conversation, with the householder asking questions about such things as health, education, transport, taxes, etc.
You could act out the scene for your classmates or record or video it.

What to do
Which of these statements about door-to-door canvassing do you agree with and which ones do you disagree with? Explain why.
 It’s the best way to get people to vote for you.
 It means candidates have to be able to think on their feet.
 It lets people know exactly what the party stands for.
 It could be a good way to get people to vote who otherwise might not bother.
 It’s a waste of time as people have usually already decided who they are going to vote for.
 It could be dangerous as people might get violent.
 It’s an invasion of privacy as people shouldn’t be pestered in their homes.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A target-setting activity
Look back at the sheet called ‘Citizenship Strand 3 Self-Assessment’ that you filled out for activity 2. Now decide how you could do better next time you have to take part as a member of a group.
Choose one or more of the following suggestions from each heading and write them on the back of your self-assessment sheet as targets for improvement.
You might not feel confident enough to do all of the suggestions so pick the ones that best fit your own personality, but make it too easy for yourself- set yourself a bit of a challenge.

Talked and listened with confidence
 I will make more contributions when we are discussing things.
 I will say what I think and not be too easily swayed by other people.
 I will suggest things to others in the group.

Asked questions and responded to the views of others
 I will ask at least two questions either of the teacher or someone else in my group.
 I will make sure I say something encouraging to every member of the group.

Took part in the debate and said something in a way that the rest of the class could understand.
 I will make at least one comment in front of the whole class in the discussion.
 I will make at least one comment to my group in group work.
 I will be the one to make the speech or to take a speaking role.

Maybird 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()